The Circassian Genocide

Author: Walter Richmond
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 0813560691
Size: 80.74 MB
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Circassian Encounters: The Self as Other and the Production of the Homeland in
the North Caucasus.” Development and Change 29 (1998): 617–646. Sherry,
Dana. “Social Alchemy on the Black Sea Coast, 1860–65.” Kritika: Explorations in
Russian and Eurasian History 10, no. 1 (Winter 2009): 7–30. Spencer, Edmund.
Travels in Circassia, Krim Tartary, Etc. 2 vols. London: Henry Col- burn, 1836. —
——. Turkey, Russia, and the Black Sea, and Circassia. London: Routledge,

Literature Of Travel And Exploration A To F

Author: Jennifer Speake
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9781579584252
Size: 27.11 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Slade, Adolphus, Travels in Germany and Russia: Including a Steam Voyage by
the Danube and the Euxine from Vienna to Constantinople, in 1838-1839. 1840.
Spencer. Edmund, Travels in Circassia, Krim-Tartary, dec., Including a Steam
Voyage down the Danube from Vienna to Constantinople, and round the Black
Sea in 1836. 2 vols., 1837; as Turkey, Russia, the Black Sea, and Circassia, 1854
. Steinbuechel von Rheinwall, Anton, Neueste Dampfschiffahrt von Wien nach ...

Circassian History

Author: Kadir I. Natho
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 9781465316998
Size: 27.88 MB
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The squadron of Pustoshkin remained on the Anapa raid during the whole week,
loading the ships with the spoils of war and repulsing the daily Circassian attacks
. Having finally finished its mission, the squadron raised its masts and left. Taking
advantage of this, and of the return of Gangebelov's unit, the Turkish Pasha
returned to Anapa, and the Circassians resumed attacking the Black Sea Cordon
Line. In 1809, Russia resumed her war against Turkey. Again, the commander in

The Circassian Diaspora In Turkey

Author: Zeynel Abidin Besleney
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317910044
Size: 41.29 MB
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Therefore, Circassia was considered to be an invaluable addition to the empire
for both economic and demographic reasons. Furthermore, Russia was
concerned by the constant security threat that the long Black Sea coast of
Circassia might pose. The thinking was that as long as large numbers of armed
Circassians remained in the coastal areas, the Western Caucasus could not be
considered fully pacified as there would always be a danger of armed rebellions
and the meddling of ...


Author: Adel Bashqawi
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1543447651
Size: 12.78 MB
Format: PDF
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Britannica Encyclopedia affirms, “The treaty allowed Russia to annex the islands
controlling the mouth of the Danube River and the Caucasus coastal strip of the
Black Sea, including the fortresses of Anapa and Poti. ... belief that Turkey, being
a Muslim country, will not abandon the Circassians or Circassia, especially that
the said agreement will harm Circassia and its people, which made them send a
delegation composed of Circassian leaders to Istanbul to meet the Ottoman
sultan, ...

The Black Sea

Author: Charles King
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191647772
Size: 57.39 MB
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Chernoe More, 1700-1860 Diderot's Encyclope'die, the Enlightenment's great
compendium of human knowledge, contains a brief entry on the Black Sea. The “
Pont-Euxin” is described as lying “between Little Tartary and Circassia to the
north, Georgia to the east, Anatolia to the south, and European Turkey to the west
.” The author of the entry adds helpfully that it is not a pont in the sense that an
empty-headed French courtier might understand it—that is, not a “bridge”—but
rather “an ...

Travels In Norway Sweden Finland Russia And Turkey

Author: George Matthew Jones
Size: 51.91 MB
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Also on the Coasts of the Sea of Azof and of the Black Sea; with a Review of the
Trade in Those Seas, and of the Systems Adopted to Man the Fleets of the
Different Powers of Europe, Compared with that of England George Matthew
Jones ... Attacks of the Circassians—Retaliation by the Russians and Cossacks—
lnterview with three Circassian Chiefs—Horrible Condition of the Circassian
Captives—Features of the Circassians— Female Beauty —Sale of the Circassian
Girls—Motives ...

Encyclopedia Of The Peoples Of Africa And The Middle East

Author: Facts On File, Incorporated
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 143812676X
Size: 24.30 MB
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By agreement between Russia and the neighboring Ottoman Empire, the
Circassians were to be resettled in Ottoman territory. Many drowned during the
passage across the Black Sea and many others starved. Of those who survived,
most were re- settled in areas that are today parts of Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and
Israel. Estimates of those ex- pelled vary widely, from conservative figures of
600,000 up to 1.5-2 million. At least half a million or so were resettled in Turkey,
70,000 in Syria, ...